Balázs Bertényi of Nokia is the 3GPP RAN Chairman, who recently oversaw some remarkably intense work to finalize "5G NR." That's otherwise known as Release 15. Guy Daniels of TelecomTV got clear answers to questions every pr person has been ducking: What is it exactly? How does it differ from LTE radio? The "two main elements" apply to the older definition of 5G, high frequencies only.
5G NR operates in higher bands, such as 28 GHz millimeter wave. There's a great deal of unused spectrum up there. Also More bandwidth in wider channels, up to 400 MHz. Few today have more than LTE's 100 MHz limit. But the U.S. 28 GHz band has ~2,000 MHz.
The illustration is a schedule from the frantic last week with ~ 200 hours of meetings to wrap things up. The words below are my edits. I recommend you listen to the video. It's less than three minutes.
At high frequencies, the bandwidth is there. (The available spectrum is the whole point of using mmWave.) Ericsson, Huawei, Nokia, Samsung, & ZTE have all demonstrated 20 GHz peaks. Qualcomm models median actual user speeds well over a gig.
Bertényi doesn't forget, "We also have Massive MIMO." He projects the improved version of MM in Release 15 has 15-20% more throughput in the lower bands. I'm researching whether the improved MM is because of the "New Radio" or just is another improvement in Release 15.
"Of course," he adds, "We also have the low latency." The common target is < 10 milliseconds, although a future, ultrareliable version of 5G can get the latency from the cell to the phone down towards 1 ms. LTE is now down to 2 ms, although neither 5G nor LTE equipment with those low latencies is available. In most telecom networks, you have to add the latency from the cell to the C-RAN intelligence. No one is talking down to 1 or 2 ms unless the intelligence moves to the edge, which is very expensive.
With China Telecom now committing to 3.5 GHz, the strong majority of 5G in Europe and Asia will not be high frequency in the early years according to informal surveys.
There is much, much more in the Release.