Ted Rappaport's paper, Millimeter wave mobile communications for 5G cellular: It will work! inspired 5G.  The new Wireless Communications and Applications Above 100 GHz: Opportunities and Challenges for 6G and Beyond points the way forward in wireless above 100 GHz. Ted and colleagues believe, "The mobile industry will be able to work well up to 800 GHz in the future using the small-cell architectures envisioned for 5G."

The reach of millimetre wave 5G is a major issue, due to signal loss. The paper discusses several ways to compensate for the increased loss in even higher frequencies. The key is that the antenna size goes down as frequencies go up. At 28 GHz, a 256 antenna module is the size of a chip. The beam will be pencil sized and hard to detect.

"THz will enable new sensing applications such as miniaturized radars for gesture detection and touchless smartphones, spectrometers for explosive detection and gas sensing [49], THz security body scanning, air quality detection [24], personal health monitoring systems [48], precision time/frequency transfer, and wireless synchronization [10], [22], [59]."

Ted emails, "There might be tens of thousands of antenna elements at the THz frequency range. Hybrid beamforming most likely will be needed since the physical spacing between elements will be smaller than the physical size of RF transistors, but our paper has some exciting and potentially fruitful ideas about how to implement arrays with that magnitude  of antenna elements for phased arrays of the future."

This is not easy work. For example, "This paper also presents approaches and results that reduce the computational complexity and simplify the signal processing used in adaptive antenna arrays, by exploiting the Special Theory of Relativity to create a 'cone of silence' in over-sampled antenna arrays that improves performance for digital phased array antennas." Faraday would be amazed.

Much of the content is reviewing the work the authors are doing to understand the beam properties. What kind of walls can the beams go through? What's the effect of rain and fog? What are the right approaches to channel models? An enormous amount of research is being done at high frequencies. The paper has 178 footnotes. A great deal is still unknown.  

It will often be possible to see around corners.

 

 

Wireless Communications and Applications Above 100 GHz: Opportunities and Challenges for 6G and Beyond

Frequencies from 100 GHz to 3 THz are promising bands for the next generation of wireless communication systems because of the wide swaths of unused and unexplored spectrum. These frequencies also offer the potential for revolutionary applications that will be made possible by new thinking, and advances in devices, circuits, software, signal processing, applications, and systems. This paper describes many of the technical challenges and opportunities for wireless communication and sensing applications above 100 GHz, and presents a number of promising discoveries, novel approaches, and recent results that will aid in the development and implementation of the sixth generation (6G) of wireless networks, and beyond. This work shows recent regulatory and standard body rulings that are anticipating wireless products and services above 100 GHz, and illustrates the viability of wireless cognition, hyper-accurate position location, sensing and imaging. This paper also presents approaches and results that reduce the computational complexity and simplify the signal processing used in adaptive antenna arrays, by exploiting the Special Theory of Relativity to create a “cone of silence” in over-sampled antenna arrays that improves performance for digital phased array antennas. Also, new results that give insights into power efficient beam steering algorithms, and new propagation and partition loss models above 100 GHz are given, and promising imaging, array processing, and position location results are presented. The implementation of spatial consistency at THz frequencies, an important component of channel modeling that considers minute changes and correlations over space, is also discussed. This paper offers the first indepth look at the vast applications of THz wireless products and applications, and provides approaches for how to reduce power and increase performance across several problem domains, giving early evidence that THz techniques are compelling and available for future wireless communications.

dave ask

Newsfeed

The 3.3-4.2 spectrum should be shared, not exclusively used by one company, concludes an important U.S. Defense Innovation Board report. If more wireless broadband is important, sharing is of course right because shared networks can yield far more

It does work! Verizon's mmWave tests over a gigabit in the real world. 
The $669 OnePlus 7 Pro outclasses the best Apples and probably the new Galaxy 10 or Huawei P30 Pro. Optical zoom, three cameras, liquid cooling, Qualcomm 855 and more.
Korea at 400,000 5G May 15. Chinese "pre-commercial" signing customers, 60,000-120,000 base stations in 2019, million+ remarkable soon. 
5G phones Huawei Mate 20, Samsung Galaxy 10, ZTE Nubia, LG V50, and OPPO are all on sale at China Unicom. All cost US$1,000 to 1,500 before subsidy. Xiaomi promises US$600.
Natural monopoly? Vodafone & Telecom Italia to share 5G, invite all other companies to join.
Huawei predicts 5G phones for US$200 in 2021, $300 even earlier
NY Times says "5G is dangerous" is a Russian plot. Really.
Althiostar raised US$114 million for a virtual RAN system in the cloud. Rakuten, Japan's new #4, is using it and invested.
Ireland is proposing a US$3 billion subsidy for rural fibre that will be much too expensive. Politics.
Telefonica Brazil has 9M FTTH homes passed and will add 6M more within two years. Adjusted for population, that's more than the U.S. The CEO publicly urged other carriers to raise prices together.
CableLabs and Cisco have developed Low Latency XHaul (LLX) with 5-15 ms latency for 5G backhaul,  U.S. cable is soon to come in very strong in wireless. Details 
Korea Telecom won 100,000 5G customers in the first month. SK & LG added 150,000 more. KT has 37,500 cells. planning 90% of the country by yearend. 
The Chinese giants expect 60,000 to 90,000 5G cells by the end of 2019.
China Telecom's Yang Xin warns, "Real large-scale deployment of operators' edge computing may be after 2021." Customers are hard to find.
Reliance Jio registered 97.5% 4G availability across India in Open Signal testing. Best in world.

More newsfeed

----------

Welcome On Oct 1, 2019 Verizon turned on the first $20B 5G mmWave network with extraordinary hopes. The actual early results have been dismal. Good engineers tell me that will change. Meanwhile, the hype is unreal. Time for reporting closer to the truth.

The estimates you hear about 5G costs are wildly exaggerated. Verizon is building the most advanced wireless network while reducing capex. Deutsche Telekom and Orange/France Telecom also confirm they won't raise capex.

Massive MIMO in either 4G or "5G" can increase capacity 3X to 7X, including putting 2.3 GHz to 4.2 GHz to use. Carrier Aggregation, 256 QAM, and other tools double and triple that. Verizon sees cost/bit dropping 40% per year.

Cisco & others see traffic growth slowing to 30%/year or less.  I infer overcapacity almost everywhere.  

Believe it or not, 80% of 5G (mid-band) for several years will be slower than good 4G, which is more developed.